Reflection. Almost the end

From the learning of BCM111 International Media and Communication, I have been inspired by the facts and sources was interrelate how the media can brings many impact in our daily routine. The media and technologies from local, national, international allow occur opportunity and crisis by the emergence of globalisation, changing our idea and information .Just like think globally, act locally or think globally, act globally all based on how we are practice and react. Communication influences our cultural context by emerge of media practice and incoming of transnational media flow.

Global village make us more integrated, we can access anytime and anywhere having a chance to observe other cultural background of people around the world. The weekly blog topic was interesting and useful to me explore different issues place together into one main perspective, it clearly to show all are work with the globe and unable to separate that is independent. As I observe, globalisation it was contain both sides between positive and negative, every single issue base on the individual perception toward the subject, every one of us have their own right and voice to view the issue.

I learnt lot knowledge from each week lecture slide and required readings. There have a few readings covered really enhance my understanding about the topic, and somehow consists of bias view about certain issue for instance of transnational film, global media changing news value etc. I think author should give balance of facts not just argue in one side, maintain on neutral point of view, as a reader sometime I feel lost of thinking when it come to my view not consistent with the author side. However, it can encourage me find scholarly reference to support my point, give reader a big contrast view, shaping the way they are looking of international issues with diverse values.

Peace journalism by Al-Jazeera

Al-Jazeera-English-tv-watchliveSource: markacadey.net

Al-Jazeera broadcasting began in 1996, from Gulf state of Qatar. The meaning of Al-Jazeera in Arab means is no limit of editorial freedom provide as soon as credibility of news coverage, in-depth discussion how the news going on, journalist are professional with fair and balance style. Al-Jazeera constantly covered most of the sensitive news and others mainstream media less of take it serious to reporting certain issue, that is the reason the number of audience always increase year by year. Al-Jazeera is a one of the pivotal news channels in the world. Al-Jazeera English being introduced in 2006, this news platform possesses over sixty bureaus around the world. Al-Jazeera English is an international news channel, that has broadcasts almost 130 countries, and most of the western audience often view this channel news, each of the programmes available in their website.

News it need to contain valuable source to the public, but today audience  have its own spin to view the current issue(readings).Each news channel have distinct outlooks to viewer, it give variable of style to satisfy audience needs. They are wishing to shape public opinion via of images and reporting.  While Al-Jazeera always give people have impression that are likely close to truth without hidden false information, presents the international view on report the events. An author Philip Seib from The Al-Jazeera Effect was quote ‘The media are no longer just the media. They have a larger popular base than ever before, as a result have unprecedented impact on international politics. The media can be tools of conflict and instrumental of peace; they can make traditional borders irrelevant and unify peoples scattered across the globe. This phenomenon is the Al-Jazeera Effect is reshaping the world.(Zingarelli, 2010).

However, some of the news broadcaster are likely to have bias opinion and attitude, it can cause audience increase stereotypical thinking to look others cultural with bad impression, for instance of 911 incident happen in United States due to some international media blaming the Arab countries making western people have negative impression. This kind of reporting style can be categorized is war journalism. War journalism tend to applied propaganda way to grab public attention even though the news content are emphasize on partly false information and strongly negative connotation which shape people attitude toward a certain issue. Al-Jazeera play a peace role, encourage on voice to the voiceless, use the minimized harmless response to conflict. Indeed, Al-Jazeera pursue the behind of truth and facts, ensure each of the news is hundred per cent of credibility source, as a responsibility journalism. In addition, peace journalism will provide diverse point of view from expertise, in order to given audience have transparency address each of the news which concerning their own right and respect. In fact, media still challenge on the legal and physical constrains that affect limited of ability to cover about sensitive issue especially related war, religious issues.

Reference  

El-Nawawy, M& Powers, S 2010 ‘Al-Jazeera English: A conciliatory medium in a conflict-driven environment? ’, Global Media and Communication Vol 6: 1, pp. 61 – 84

Zingarelli, ME 2010,’The CNN effect and the Al-Jazeera effect in global politics and society’, accessed 3/11/13,http://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/553423/zingarelliMeganElizabeth.pdf?sequence=1

 

Protest Cultures and Digital Dissent-New media transformation

filepicker_EPKo22UZQdyCInXgtetP_155-obama-2008Source: rapgenius.com

The technology become more advance as compare the past time, everyone able to access any kind of new media such as social networking. Based on the topic today, it is related how new media transformation able help election candidates considers use new media to disseminate their latest update and feature of news to their followers. The new media have turn into most powerful platform rather than the traditional media. Especially the young group often actively involve use new media as part of their daily routine must do list, where young people were spending most of their time.

imagesSource: redaleartpolitics.com

Back to 2008 American presidential election, Barack Obama use new media which engage with the public, he intended aimed at young voters and maintain close relationship with the followers. Barack Obama use essential campaign tactics tools for reaching his followers at the same time spread the message to them, the key message is who made them believe in their abilities to bring about change, the person who gave them hope, and the person who let them feel united (Alexandrova ,  2010).Just like his announced the slogan ‘Change, we can believe in’ and the chant ‘Yes we can’ those motivational slogan really grab Americans heart since they are feel depressed the past president Bush, George Walker policy, Americans seek hope as they want to shape their future.

obama-social-mediaSource: earningdiary.com

Barack Obama team emphasized the important of new media impact, So they have been create different account in those social networking such as Facebook, Twitter, MyBo etc. Each of the media platforms was all relevant how Barack Obama promise to American resident’s policy, speech of victory. Moreover, all of the sites allow public to leave their comment after then will have some Obama team answer the following question. Barrack Obama did really great work to highlight aspect of his candidacy, because he was the first use new media tactic to promote him and also save the paper cost. Furthermore, new media is incredibly speedy and low cost tools which target on potential voters that personalized encounters on a near daily basis (Hellweg , 2011). He recognizes that most of people had migrated to the new media and one of the important tools to communicate. Obama team knew on those trends able help them to spread message.

During final stages, Barack Obama team create a ‘call friend’ mobile application, link the people address book with key battleground states, and further links to relevant news updates. That have one feature is local events, track people GPS location retrieves their voter information (Shiels, 2008).Barack Obama believe young group it is potential voter to influence him election, so he want make it different approach to reach youth, yet using new media was costly but allowed him to earn something that big it is the next presidency.

CaptureThe picture above, show Barack Obama versus John McCain spent money on their election campaign

Obama campaign run very successful courting of supporter from social networking, so far it is more advanced level of media strategy than other candidates failed to take new media seriously enough. In fact, the overall of campaign was paying a lot of effort to reach possible voters. The key point is to ensure each supporter, regardless of where they are, have a same platform connection with Barack Obama (Vargas, 2008). Todays, most of the youngsters having habits in discover news about the election, they frequent share idea with their peers, and evaluate the progression how the candidates can bring any benefit to them (Alexandrova,  2010).

Apart of that, social media has altered the accessibility and availability of informa­tion especially on candidates. It could of gathering certain knowledge from candidate’s website. At the same times, using interactive sites where communication is continuous between voters and politicians and where information flows directly from politician’s mouths to voter’s social networking platform (Hellweg, 2011).

Source: omgposters.com

rock_the_vote_300This is how new media plays a crucial role to influence us, just like Barack Obama spent the most on media to spread his messages. New media evoke our attention to conscious the ‘protest culture’.

Reference

Alexandrova , E 2010 , ‘Using New Media Effectively: an Analysis of Barack Obama’s Election Campaign Aimed at Young Americans’, Journal of Communication in Politics, accessed 26/10/2013, http://www.academia.edu/1526998/Using_New_Media_Effectively_an_Analysis_of_Barack_Obamas_Election_Campaign_Aimed_at_Young_Americans

Gilbson, RK 2009, ‘New Media and The Revitalisation of Politics’, vol.45, pp.289-297, accessed 26/10/13.

Hellweg, A 2011, ‘Social Media Sites of Politicians Influence Their Perception by Constituents’, Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications,vol.2, no.1, pp22-26, accessed 26/10/2013, http://www.elon.edu/docs/e-web/academics/communications/research/vol2no1/03Hellweg.pdf

Shiels, M 2008, Obama uses iPhone to win support, accessed 26/10/13, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7649753.stm

Vargas, JA 2008, Obama’s Wide Web, From YouTube to Text Messaging, Candidate’s Team Connects to Voters, accessed 26/10/13, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/19/AR2008081903186_pf.html

Global Crises, Global Value=journalists ethics

Image                                                    (Source:crankygoat.com)

Global crises is one of the issue we should be conscious about it. But, did you actually know what the global crisis is? First come of mind is the ozone layer become thick day by day, natural disaster quite often happen in this recent year, animal lost of shelter and some of animal are now extinct. Did you have taken any action do protect our earth? Actually journalists and reporters have taken place do covering climate change news, as a journalist should be have fair and balance to view the issue and use different approach to reporting the issue.

Based on Ward B, 2009 was highlighted journalist itself should satisfy the essential requirements seek truth, faithfulness, courageous in gathering variation of information not just rely on single source and unbiased to reporting. Are you believed what the relevant of global crises and journalists are correlated, how you view those all information and news are made by journalist? Do the journalists comply with ethics code? Like SPJ Code of Ethics was mentioned give voice to the voiceless, official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid for urge journalist can did a course of action. Also, journalist should be aware of contradictory statements, ensure that not aim specific issue.

Today, almost of reporters may accustom to provide balance opinion based on the science. In fact, they should be learn ‘false balance’  providing space disproportionate to its scientific credibility to perspectives running counter to what is now widely accepted as the ‘established’ scientific judgment (Ward B, 2009). This also part of the obligation to let public voice up what they can do for against climate change and reduce this is a problem that haunts all of us.

Public would have think that the media should have moral obligation to discover facts without distortion, to avoid the facts wrong used by those hold the power, in addition spend time on seek to expose the truth rather than spout fiction (Dean T, 2013). What is the role of media that played, are they have follow moral obligation to report climate crises and provide anything to public without exaggerate purposely?

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I think that media can use their own power to inform and assemble public point of view about climate change, generate numerous of action to mitigate bad consequence by global warning. From Stephenson W,2012 argued that journalist should be not concern that those with ideological or vested interests oppose action on climate change, they should speaking out those voices for what they are did and give public to think whether they are achieve code of ethics. We cannot be influence by the untruth facts and statistic to interfere with our voice. Why journalist intention not report climate change? Because most of them were afraid if they are report this issue, they job also will be affected or never had chance to work with the media anymore. Stephenson W, 2012 also remind himself ‘I knew that once I’d crossed the line to the “other side,” there could be no turning back’. It could be one of the factor to make journalist unable step forward the code of ethics, so it is hard to let public to believe that climate change is actually worst in this coming decade. Please be smart do look clear our real situation now, don’t just believe whatever media show to us.

Please love your earth, if not it can threaten our only home.

This is a video that have 8 speakers share what it is happening about climate change, take your time to listen what are they said. It is a very knowledgeable.

http://www.ted.com/playlists/78/climate_change_oh_it_s_real.html

Reference

Dean, T 2013, accessed 12/10/2013, http://theconversation.com/a-question-of-ethics-journalists-and-climate-change-18395

Stephenson  W, 2012, accessed 12/10/2013, http://thephoenix.com/boston/news/146647-convenient-excuse/?page=2#TOPCONTENT

Ward, B 2009, ‘Journalism ethics and climate change reporting in a period of intense media uncertainty’, Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, vol. 9, pp. 13-15.

News Values

what-makes-news Source: teridyer

I still remembered the news value definition explained by my lecturer in my diploma stage. He is a professional journalist I met, he share to us why he quit the journalist job partly because he didn’t have freedom of right to discover the truth behind the story.  He feels depressed if the news unable cover the truth is that considers ‘news value’ He said some news already no value to cover, totally lose the meaning.

What is the right for reporter gathering news, why they still struggle go looking for news?  I know every one of us include myself have aspect journalist should possess code of ethics which are seek the truth, minimize harm, act independently and be accountable. But due to some circumstance, journalist did the news generally work under of pressure by ‘watchdog’ and ‘gatekeeper’. People would rather use other platform to get the news rarely use traditional media.

My parents still have subscribe monthly newspaper habit which are The Star and China Press, in my observation I can clearly to see two different reporting style are totally different format with online source. Even though the news still remain similar content but online source tend to use catchy headline and content interpret more close to our daily life. The press release more formal and conservative, older generation prefer this type of format and they are likely believe traditional media. I have ask my parent how they are evaluate newspaper source, they are said feel comfortable to read since don’t cover over-puffery feature and full-packaged include several type of categories such as sport, entertainment, lifestyle, international and national happenings.

From the lecture note listed that have various kind of news features which are 1-transient, 2-pseudo events, 3-narrativisation, 4-visual imperatives. Each feature is fit different story base and regarding which content can grab reader interest. Apart of that, news value consists 1- Cultural Proximity, 2- Relevance, 3- Rarity, 4- Continuity, 5- Elite References, 6- Negativity, 7- Composition, and 8- Personalisation.

Perhaps the truth news only reveal to those who have strong authority power , so we should not blame journalist, editor are intentionally conceal a real story, they are just being work in force by media companies or monopolies by government. However, especially the youth generation they are one of the active group consume news or information from social networking(facebook, twitter ,tumblr and blog ) and online newspaper(malaysiakini, Malaysia today and The Malaysian Insider etc). These are a hub become more emergence than traditional media since that information reaches to people only a short period of time, and all source always up to date sometime those source contain bias view made by journalist and exaggerate forms.

For instance, Arab Spring incident it can be part of issue that evoke high interest to society, most of the western mainstream media did not consider on Arab Spring issue due to the begin of new generation of educated, unemployed young finding its voice in revolt against the established order (Lee-Wright 2012).  The western media tried to minimize report on Arab Spring issue that’s why a large number of western citizen did not conscious, whether how journalist omit ‘the truth’ and create the ‘packaged story’ but in the internet still spread all about this issue to reach internet users . But no one know how credibility about those reportings, shall we believe on these packaged story?
There is seven of characteristic or news value which helps to make the information newsworthy. It is a guide for the journalist to consider and determine what have to publish out to the audience.

newsSource : huntnewsvalue

There have few elements to determine the newsworthiness of a potential story.

  1. Impact
  2. Timeliness
  3. Prominence
  4. Proximity
  5. The Bizarre
  6. Conflict
  7. Currency
  8. Human interest

Reference

Lee-Wright, P 2012, ‘News Values: An Assessment of News Priorities Through a Comparative Analysis of Arab Spring Anniversary Coverage’ JOMEC Journal: Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies.

Translation is a crucial part to make drama success or failure?

Kath and Kim was an Australia comedy get a good rating as compare other Australia comedy. A few countries bought the licensee to show this comedy, however this comedy was minor hit in American but in UK receive a major response. Why Kath and Kim can work success on UK partly because UK perceive shared cultural context with Australia, both countries shared the similarity of irony, jokes implies who correlated their own national identity too. American would not be able discover Australia jokes, based on Turnbull, 2010 describe American version of Kath and Kim “There has been a seriously lost in translation”. Even thought, American still use the same plot and structure, but some of the Australia context they are failure to translate. That’s why American audiences misunderstood certain Australia irony, since they are never adaptation Australia belonging. American and Australia humour demonstrate divergent interpretations of meaning.

Audiences able influence the drama rating as the same time make the show become a hit topic discuss in society. Kath and Kim script was simple but funny, the actors performance also to make the comedy add point due to they use different way to come out the message. Apart of that, the key actors are roughly the same age even though they are playing different generation only available on Australia Kath and Kim, it can reach out different group of audiences to meet their preference. . The production team gave the American version of Kath and Kim actors freedom to embody their own original comic performances. Based on Turnbull, 2008 suggested a good comedy need to work with the translation but the main point to attract huge viewership was the production deals which are made and the expectations about audiences which are then inferred. Sometime the original version already are work strongest in our mind,  even though some countries tries to re take the drama again remain the original content but the meanings might not difference anymore.

 29-9-2013 11-46-03 PM

There have few dramas were success exporting to other countries, however also has drama not get the positive response, being octcry by publics. Meteor Garden is a Taiwanese drama started from 2001, this drama eventually follows the Japanese comic, but the production team change some script content make it more national context to close the audience taste, less exactly follow the original comic. Taiwan was the first country to make this story on drama, since this drama create such a hot wave so other countries also do the similar context according to Taiwanese version of meteor garden. This drama was come out variety of versions that are Korea and Japan. I had been watched three versions by different language and plot or structure. For my personal point of view, the Taiwanese version was the classic cannot be replaced, the Japan version named (Hana Yori Dango)was close similarity with the Taiwan version maintain the same theme. Moreover, Korea version set the name (Boys Over Flowers) also reproduces this drama Korea version tend to more localize ,the key actors role still remain yet the Taiwan storyline and others characters does not appear in this version. Korea version more strongly depicted as a romantic companion for most of the drama and a few characters had been highlighted, having their own significant plotline instead of acting as a subplot, subversion of the original characters.

Another example was The Legend of Zhen Huan broadcasted from China drama was greatly export to few countries as well such as Japan and American. This drama was smash hit drama from 2013 having high viewership. Although the storyline are same but the translation was totally out of content. Since, this drama was in a story about a young woman’s rise to power in the Qing Dynasty palace, so the content full of ancient poem. Based on Joanna, 2013 said that ‘most of the meanings not frequently used in the Japanese language and are therefore unrecognizable to most Japanese viewers. However, some viewers complained that the new title was “too bare” and lacked the implicit appeal of the original. Even though I understand mandarin, but there have been consists too many ancient meaning, so make me feel misunderstood the content. Limited by its translation, the depth of its original meaning is not understood, and the tones and feelings expressed by the speaker fail to be delivered to the audience. Furthermore, the translation may erase some traditional Chinese culture elements and undermine its historic significance (Lu, QW 2013).

29-9-2013 11-49-25 PM

Reference

Joanna, 2013, accessed 28/9/2013, http://www.jaynestars.com/tv-dramas/legend-of-zhen-huan-becomes-smash-hit-in-japan/

Lu, QW 2013, accessed 28/9/2013, http://www.globaltimes.cn/DesktopModules/DnnForge%20-%20NewsArticles/Print.aspx?tabid=99&tabmoduleid=94&articleId=758446&moduleId=405&PortalID=0

Turnbull, S 2008, ‘It’s Like They Threw a Panther in the Air and Caught It in Embroidery’: Television Comedy in Translation’ Metro Magazine Issue 159

world cinema –> transnational cinema

From the previous post was discussing the media capitals slightly had been affected by India and China. In this topic was talk about the transformation of transnational films, also mentioned Western dominance of films industries invest into India and China films. Karan K & Schaefer DJ 2010 argued that Asian production center  much of hybridity to enhance demand for glocalized content within globalized distribution networks, the film content used global and local elements which to meet audience tastes and trends.

13355695_41nSource: news.xinhuanet,com

Karate_kid_ver2Source: impawards.com

Asian production rivalling soft power strongly influences audience perception, people favour started from western film switch to Asian film. For example Karete Kid movie was mixing chinese cultural background and western ideal, it able to reach the local and international audiences. It also a phenomenon shift from world cinema turns to transnational cinema. Basically world cinema also known as buzz world, it means that popular trend, English speaking countries refer to the film industries of non- English speaking countries, intended link people across nations. In recent year, some Hollywood movie actor group will be collaborate with Asian actor or went to few Asian countries to take shoot aim to promoting the film and gain more exposure in Asia. What the western audience think about Asian? The first come of mind will be related of kung fu, since the first kung fu star Bruce Lee encounter Hollywood film deeply impact on western peoples.

This is a fact from Rance Pow, founder of Artisan Gateway, a Shanghai-based film and cinema consultancy  said”Chinese filmmakers and the Chinese governmental groups that oversee the film industry recognise that film and story-telling can be a powerful tool to introduce Chinese people and culture to the outside world,”. We can see most of the movies today were contain chinese culture elements, and some chinese movie used diverse type of story to introduce to chinese and western , this very useful build their film making industries.

For my point of view, Asian production technology still need more improve but they are use simply production carrying meaningful storyline which make audience much more memorable, Western production very professional advance technology but the movie plot look very similar , sometime I can’t differentiate have this kind of feeling ‘why the overall of movie alike XXX’ .I am not stereotype the western movie production, this is all my own perception toward western movie, Asian movie also like to use kung fu as a theme of movie, audience will feel annoyed.Despite their increased sophistication, Chinese films are a hard sell outside their home market, says Tim Kwok of Cinema Asia Releasing, which distributes Asian-language films in North America.

Reference

Schaefer, D.J & Karan, K 2010, ‘Hybridity and Bollywoodization of popular Indian cinema in global film flows’, Global Media and Communication, vol. 6, no. 3, pp 309-316.

Hunt, K 2011, accessed 14/0/2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-15691218

The earthquake of Media Capitals

Based on Curtin, 2003 define the media capitals are places where things come together and where the generation and circulation of new mass culture forms become possible. It is a hub where complex forces and flows interact. Todays, getting more media production are play globally acts locally, that are broadcast internationally but serve the localized content which to cater to the interest of audience. It also part of the new transformation in media flow, the local turn global and the global tries to become local, or even  regional. Hollywood broadcasters are aware the opportunity engendered from Asian countries.

In this few years, we can saw a lot of Hollywood movies cast by Western and Asian artists, they are tried to collaborate with different country based talent in order to gain recognition and reach to other possible diverse culture audience. For instance, CZ 12 directed by Jackie Chan was a martial artist , in this movie that have few different countries of actor work together from China, Hong Kong, French and others. The movie languages contain mandarin, Cantonese and English intended attract audiences across the world, it can increase greater global recognition of the culture at the same time maintain close relations with other countries.However , Curtin 2003 argued that some international program were rarely take part to alter the media content regarding oversea audiences tastes, unless occur syndicators as they attempted to sold the programs in diverse cultural contexts.

Although American still continue to dominated in global media capital , yet there has been a slightly changing in this few recent years. Partly because of India and China become part of the most emerging new media capitals has affected American film production making. Since, India and China both of the countries have very strong financial to support their own film production industry, somehow the production team are come from Hollywood production specialists to guide the local team. In this situation they are also having chance to adopt various cultural customs ability to provide multi directional flow to wider audience groups.

 

Reference

Curtin, M 2003, ‘Media Capital: Towards the Study of Spatial Flows’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, vol.6, no.2, pp202-228, accessed 28/8/2013, http://ics.sagepub.com/content/6/2/202.

 

HIP music HOP dance

Let me short introduce hip hop history, basically hip hop culture was started in the early 1970s a large group of members come from single neighbourhood congregate, most of them are originated from African American (black) and African cultures youth people in New York City. There are 4 pillars element encompasses of Hip Hop which are Mcing( rapping), Djing (audio mixing and scratching), Graffiti (urban inspired art) and Breaking (beat boxing) . Based on Henderson, 2006 noted the art of Hip Hop always influenced by their traditional language and cultures. Samoa people and American Samao often exchange new idea and new experiences intended connect their heritage. In “That’s Incredible” program featured those Samoans show their own interest in hip hop music and dance, it make a form of motivation to youth culture testified own self have a chance become hip hop artist.

Hip Hop is kinds of platform let African American voice out their thought, feeling being treated unfairly due to the social policies for instance racial issues barriers between black and white.  In the Henderson, 2006 article, highlight that Samoan male were being discriminated label as football players or dancer partly because of their physical size and prowess, somehow marks them as ‘foreign’, this was a serious criticism to identified African American normally led to negative publicity.

According to Henderson, 2006 California was a country heavily influence on the Samoan street dance and rap music, derive from the lifelong interest influx into performing hip hop music. Vaouli Seei and his friends migrate to American Samoa practice street dance which conferred as prestige status among others. This was a very similar to Maori and Pacific Islander people trying to gain achievement and opportunity in the music industry like Suga Pop was successful international street dancer create a miracle to shape public perception of Samoan involvement in hip hop industry. Suga Pop also worked with few famous singers like Michael Jackson, Lionel Richie etc.

Beside this, youth used the hip hop as music of free speech and political resistance to rise up their feeling, identity, were seem as the youth movement protest .Hip Hop has been accused of violent offensive, vulgar, sexist and criminal because it’s rhythmic intensity or rude lyric that is why some of the Hip Hop music had been banned because of addressed sensitive subject. Nevertheless, “Hip Hop becomes part of complex cultural roots and routes in African American history” (Benett ,2011). Now, Hip Hop becomes a mainstream that bring along the new evolution era, the art of Hip Hop remarkable as modern and freedom lead to globalization, means that it make everyone connectedness.

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Reference

Benett, D and Morgan ,M 2011, Hip-Hop & the Global Imprint of a Black Cultural Form ,Gale Cengage Learning, viewed 30 August 2013, <http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/ps/i.do?action=interpret&id=GALE|A254485547&v=2.1&u=uow&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1>.

Henderson, AK 2006, ‘Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora’, The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture. Basu, Dipannita and Sidney J. Lemelle, eds. London: Pluto Press, pp. 180 – 200.